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Tools & Manuals

INTRODUCTION  

This manual contains all of the information necessary to make your boat building process enjoyable and successful.  These step-by-step assembly instructions will help you to build your kayak using the “stitch and glue” technique.  

To be of any value, you will need to read, yes read, the manual.  We urge you to read this manual from cover to cover before you start building.  Then, as you build, carefully re-read each step to make sure you understand it completely.  We also recommend that you read the understanding epoxy Manual, included with your kit, before you begin working with epoxy.   

A large number of photos and diagrams add to the usefulness of your manual.  Watch for the following:

 

Time

·

 

·         To help you plan, estimated times for each step are provided.  Note whether the entire step must be completed non-stop (continuous), or if your work can be interrupted (start/stop). 

 

 

Caution!

 

·         Caution warnings indicate that a part may be ruined if a step is not completed as described.

 

 

Keys to Success

Ñ

 

·         Key messages on the most efficient and effective ways to complete the step.

 

This manual gives you recommended techniques.  Experienced builders may find shortcuts or prefer other ways to approach a step.  Each section begins with the following quick reference chart:

Techniques to Use in

 @  this section

Refer to Appendix 2 as required.

S anding

D rilling

G luing

W ashing

Fiberglassing

St itching

C oating

Varnishing

 Beginners may find Appendix 2 to be a helpful reference for standard building techniques and tools.  


Page 1

 

1.2     Prepare Your Working Space, Tools and Equipment  

An ideal working space will be a workshop, garage or other clear space of at least 10 ft x 20ft.  (Your boat can be built in less space, but it is not as pleasant an experience.)

The space should be well ventilated and protected from changes in weather, minimum 16 degrees c (60 deg. F).  It will be useful to have a flat workbench or other surface to join panels.  (A temporary surface can be made by laying a sheet of plywood across saw horses.)   

You will need the following tools and equipment at various steps in your boat building process.   

·        electric drill

·        sanding block

·        small hand saw

·        masking tape (1” & 2”)

·        plastic electrical tape

·        wire cutters

·        tape measure

·        hammer

·        bricks (weights)

·        saw horses

·        dust mask 

·        charcoal filter safety mask (NIOSH approved with an organic vapour cartridge)

·        scrap wood

·        rubber mallet

·        random orbital disk sander

·        angle square  

 ·        assortment of sand paper (40 – 240 grit)

(Aluminum oxide sandpaper is recommended.  Avoid tack clothes and silicone sandpaper when dealing with epoxies.)

·        wet/dry sandpaper (180-240 grit)

·        at least 2 pieces of ¼” dowelling about 8” long

·        42” of 2” ID. black ABS pipe cut into 1” clamps

·        hot glue gun (with fast curing glue sticks)

·        pliers (needle nose and broad nose)

·        soldering iron or butane lighter

·        clear plastic sheeting (to cover work area and to cut into strips – approx. 20 ft x 8 ft)

·        plastic page protectors

·        2” disposable paint brushes (natural bristle)

·        ½” closed cell foam (to pad the seat) 

·        clear elastomeric marine sealant (or clear polyurethane or polysulfide sealant)

·        contact cement (not water based)

·        two long straight sticks (approx. 4 ft. long)

Measurement Units

Throughout this manual, measurements are given in inches, however metric units are used to describe the thickness of some wood.  See conversion chart in Appendix 3, if you are not used to operating in both measurement systems.   

Safety Precautions

PLEASE SEE SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS IN APPENDIX 4 AT THE BACK OF THIS MANUAL.  

Page 3

 

Page 6

 

Parts List

Seat       D1    1         inner seat panel                            3 mm (1/8”  ) okoume plywood

               D2    1         second seat panel                        3 mm (1/8”  ) okoume plywood

               D3    1         third seat panel                             3 mm (1/8”  ) okoume plywood

               D4    1         outer seat panel                            3 mm (1/8”  ) okoume plywood

               D5    1         front seat panel                             4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               D6    2         hip brace panel                             4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               D6A  2         hip brace hanger                           4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               D7    1         seat back panel                             4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               D8    1         seat back brace                            12 mm (1/2”) okoume plywood

               D9    2         seat-front hold down tab               4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

Hull and Deck

               1A     2         first hull panel – bow                     4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               1B     2         first hull panel – stern                    4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               2A     2         second hull panel – bow end        4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               2B     2         second hull panel – stern end       4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               3A     2         third hull panel – bow end             4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               3B     2         third hull panel – stern end            4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               4A     2         fourth hull panel – bow end           4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               4B     2         fourth hull panel – stern end         4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               5A     2         fifth hull panel – bow end (side)    4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               5B     2         fifth hull panel – stern end (side)   4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               6A     2         deck edge panel – bow end          4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               6B     2         deck edge panel – stern end        4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               7A     2         deck top panel – bow end             4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               7B     2         deck top panel – stern end           4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               7C    2         foot brace backing (optional)        4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

Bulkheads

               B1     1         bow (temporary)                           3 mm (1/8”  ) plywood

               B2     1         bow (temporary)                           3 mm (1/8”  ) plywood

               B3     1         front of front hatch (temporary)     3 mm (1/8”  ) plywood

               B4     1         rear of front hatch (permanent)    4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               B5     1         behind cockpit (permanent)          4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               B6     1         behind rear hatch (temporary)      3 mm (1/8”  ) plywood

               B7     1         behind rear hatch – top rib            4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               B8     1         stern (temporary)                          3 mm (1/8”  ) plywood

               B9     1         stern (temporary)                          3 mm (1/8”  ) plywood

Sheer End Forms

               F1     1         bow tip (temporary)                       3 mm (1/8”  ) plywood

               F2     1         stern tip (temporary)                     3 mm (1/8”  ) plywood

Cockpit

               C1A  2         top coaming     (bow end)             5 mm (3/16”) okoume plywood

               C1B  2         top coaming     (stern end)           5 mm (3/16”) okoume plywood

               C2A  2         base coaming  (bow end)             18 mm (3/4”) okoume plywood

               C2B  2         base coaming  (stern end)           18 mm (3/4”) okoume plywood

Hatches

               HIA    1         front hatch bottom strip   (bow)    6 mm (1/4”) okoume plywood

               HIB   1         front hatch bottom strip  (stern)    6 mm (1/4”) okoume plywood

               H2A  1         rear hatch bottom strip  (bow)      6 mm (1/4”) okoume plywood

               H2B  1         rear hatch bottom strip  (stern)     6 mm (1/4”) okoume plywood

               H3     2         front hatch cover                           4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               H3A  1         front hatch positioning bar              4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               H4     2         rear hatch cover                            4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

               H4A  1         rear hatch positioning bar              4 mm (5/32”) okoume plywood

Page 7

 

SECTION 2      SURFACE PREPARATION OF YOUR PARTS  

Techniques to Use in

 @  this section

Refer to Appendix 2 as required.

S anding

D rilling

G luing

W ashing

Fiberglassing

St itching

C oating

Varnishing

 

 

Keys to Success

Ñ

 

·         Always sand your pieces “with the grain”. 

 

 

Time    ·

 

  • Start/Stop 2 hours

 

2.1       Part Numbering

Part numbers are pre-stamped to indicate the interior surface of each piece (these stamps will eventually be hidden on the interior of the kayak).   

 

Caution!

 

v    IT IS YOUR RESPONSIBILITY TO VERIFY THAT INTERIOR SURFACES ARE MARKED PROPERLY BEFORE YOU WORK WITH THEM! 

       Use the Parts Layout Diagram as your reference. 

If you prefer the grain pattern on the stamped side, feel free to use this side as your exterior (visible outer) surface. 

·        first, (in pencil) mark the part number on the side you want as your interior surface;

·        then, (using 150-180 grit sandpaper) gently sand off the pre-stamped part number from the side that will now be your exterior surface.  

2.2       Cutting Nubs and Marking Tabs

See the Diagram 1 on the next page, to understand the difference between cutting nubs and bulkhead marking tabs. 

Each small “cutting nub” will need to be sanded off the raw wood pieces, in the upcoming steps.  

DO NOT CONFUSE the cutting nubs with the “marking tabs”.  The TABS are 5/32” (4mm) wide; they indicate the position of bulkheads and the seat riser (D5).  

Note:  Disregard the marking tabs (2 of them) on part D4.  These must be sanded off.

Page 10

 

For each piece with a marking TAB (except D4 noted above):

·        Use a pencil to draw two parallel lines 1½” long on the panel.  The lines must be on the interior surface.  These little pairs of lines will mark where the bulkheads are to be installed.

·        Once your pencil lines are made, the marking TABS will need to be sanded off the raw wood pieces.   

Diagram 2-1

 

 

cutting nub  

 

marking TAB

draw two lines – 1½” long and 5/32” (4mm) apart

 2.3     Sanding the Raw Seat Panels  

Begin with the seat, to gain practice for more visible parts to come later.  

Photo 2.3-1

  

 

 

Locate all the seat pieces D1-D8 as seen in Photo 1. (Remember there are two each of pieces D6 and D6A) 

(Note: Part Numbering, Section 2.1) 

Page 11

 

SECTION 3      JOINING THE PANELS  

Techniques to Use in

 @  this section

Refer to Appendix 2 as required.

S anding

D rilling

G luing

W ashing

Fiberglassing

St itching

C oating

Varnishing

 

 

Time    ·

 

  • Continuous 1.5  (not including work surface preparation)

 3.1     Prepare Your Work Surface
You will need a clean, flat area for joining the panels.  A workbench or other raised surface works best  (a temporary surface can be made from sheets of plywood across saw horses.) 

·        If you haven’t already done so, cover your work surface with plastic now.  

 

Keys to Success

Ñ

 

Make sure your work surface is flat. 

Þ     If you are doing this on a floor, make certain there are no bumps or lumps on the floor where you will be joining the panels.

 

Þ     If you are working on a bench or other raised surface, make sure you support the ends of the panels so they are completely flat at the joints.  

Before you start mixing epoxy, you will need to gather the following items that are not provided in the kit:

@  one strip of heavy plastic film for each puzzle joint, large enough to completely cover each joint; (page protectors for 3-ring binders work well)

@  one piece of wood per joint (plywood is recommended) large enough to cover the joint completely

@  one or two bricks (or other similar weight) per joint, to compress the joint

@  electrical tape

@  (*optional*) wood clamps to hold the panels securely on your work surface  

Low cost, effective wood clamps can be made from black 2.5” ABS pipe:

(See Appendix 3 for details.)

Page 15

 

4.2       Shape Sanding Hull and Deck Panels  

 

Keys to Success

Ñ

·         Make sure you know which panel and which side you are working on.  All beveling is done along the inside edge of the panels; therefore you should have the inside of each panel facing up when you are doing your beveling.  (Double-check this before beveling.)

·         Use 40–60 grit sandpaper to sand the bevel into your panels.

 

 

Caution

·         Do not over sand!  Read instructions carefully and note the amount of bevel that is appropriate for specific pieces, as this varies!

 

In order to get the hull and deck ready for stitching, you must do some beveling to a number of panels.  

Panel 5  and  Panel 6 – Longest Edges of Each  

When they are joined, the longest edge on Deck Panel 6 and the longest edge of Hull Panel 5 become the connecting line between the deck and the hull.  The interior sides of these two edges require beveling, so that when they are joined, the seam will be tight and even.   

  

 

  

 

Ensure that you are working on the interior/inside of these panels. 

·        Start by using a pencil to draw a continuous “guide line” on the interior edge of these panels. Draw this pencil line 5/32” (4 mm) from the edges.  

·        With 40–60 grit sandpaper, sand the bevel, removing no more than two laminations on this interior edge, up to the pencil line. (Sanding slightly past the line you made is okay, as it will result in a more “open” joint, which will later be filled with epoxy.)

 

Page 22

 

Photo 7.2-2

 

 

Photo 7.2-3

 

Special Wiring for Deck to Hull Seam

Once you are satisfied with the fit along the bulkheads and the alignment of the puzzle joints, you can begin drilling and wiring the deck-to-hull seam (Panels 5 to 6).

 

You can use fewer wires on this very visible section of the boat.  (You do NOT need to use the drilling jig).

·        Begin drilling the bottom of Panel #6, ½ inch in front of the puzzle joint, and ¼ inch from the edge.  Continue moving towards the bow, drilling approximately every 12 inches, being careful to avoid bulkheads. 

·        Using the bottom of panel 6 as a guide, “eyeball” and drill holes in the top of panel 5 to align with those on panel 6.

 

·        Loop all wires through loosely (letting the deck “float” high above the hull so you can reach through to get all the wires in).

·        Ensure alignment

·        After all wires are in, hand tighten a few wires on each side of the puzzle joint, working out from the centre to the ends

·        Lay a sheet of poly/plastic between panel 6 and 5 at the far bow and stern ends, to avoid the deck accidentally being glued to the hull at this stage. (see photo 7.4-1 in the next section)

·        Tighten wires with pliers, working out from the centre to the ends 

 

 

 

 

 

As you get to the ends of the boat, you may need to sand or bevel either the deck or hull to ensure a good fit.

 

Photo 7.2-4

  Page 52
 

 

Photo 7.2-5

 

In this photo you see a round wood rasp being used.

 

 

 

 

Once again, you can more easily do this work if you have the wires installed loosely.  The deck can even be lifted with a stick if necessary.

 

Check the wires to ensure they are tight. Also, do a visual check that the deck edges are aligning nicely to the edges of the bulkheads.

 

 

 

Again, you may want to check this alignment with the angle gauge.

Photo 7.2-6

 

 

Tapes may be used in between the 12” spaced wires, if the fit is good and tension is low.  If the tension is too great, additional wires must be added.

 

Photo 7.2-9

 

 

         Photo 7.2-8

  

Page 53

 

Appendix 2  

STANDARD BUILDING TECHNIQUES
The techniques used in this manual are relatively simple.  When directions are followed, no previous experience is required to do a good job.  There are really only about six basic techniques, which are repeated and/or varied slightly throughout the boat building process.  The techniques are summarized below.  More details and pictures are provided in longer sections, as you work through the manual.
  

SANDING

 

Raw Wood Sanding

Removes any surface scratches, dirt or residues and opens the grain of the wood, to allow an even penetration of epoxy finish. 

When

Used as the first step of preparing each piece of wood before further handling.

Goal

·         remove any ‘fuzz’ from surface & edges

·         create a smooth, even surface texture

Tools

  • 120-180 grit sandpaper

·         sanding block/s

Technique

 

  • sand carefully with the grain

·         DO NOT taper (round) any square edges            See notes under each step

CAUTION

DO NOT CHANGE SHAPE OF ANY EDGES, ESPECIALLY ON PUZZLE JOINTS

       

 

Scuff Sanding

Abrades the surface to prepare it for another coat of epoxy.

When

Used after one coat of epoxy (or varnish) is completely dried/cured and before applying the next coat.

Goal

·         create a smooth yet non-glossy surface

Tools

  • 120-180 grit sandpaper 
  • sanding block/s
  • dust mask

Technique

 

  • sand carefully with the grain

·         work in well-lit area, to ensure that all glossy areas get scuffed

CAUTION

AVOID UNDO PRESSURE – SURFACE SCUFF ONLY 

         

 

Finish Sanding

Smoothes the surface to a fine consistency to eliminate all imperfections.  Prepares final epoxy coated layer for varnishing.

When

Used as an “almost finished” step before final coats of epoxy or varnish are applied.

Goal

·         create a very smooth, glass-like surface

Tools

  • 180-220 grit sandpaper
  • sanding block/s

Technique

 

  • sand carefully with the grain
  • work in well-lit area, to ensure that all imperfections get sanded

CAUTION

AVOID UNDO PRESSURE – WHICH WOULD CREATE DIPS AND HOLLOWS  

                                                                                       Appendix 2

 

Appendix 3

 

Making Low Cost Wood Clamps  

Low cost, effective wood clamps can be made from black 2” ID. ABS pipe.  They are ideal for a number of uses during your kayak building process. 

a)     purchase approx. 30”-40” of ABS plastic pipe (from a building supplies store)  

b)     cut into approx. 3/4”-1.5” long pieces (rounds)  

c)      using a hack saw or band saw, cut a slice through one side, so the pieces can be stretched open and placed around wood edges to create a pinching clamp

     (see Photo 22-1 in Section 22)

 

 

 

 

                                                                                  To make lager clamps use larger diameter pipe.

 

Common Conversions

 

Inches

centimeters

 

Inches

millimeters

1

2.54

 

1/32

0.79

2

5.1

 

1/16

1.58

3

7.6

 

1/8

3.2

4

10.2

 

5/32

4

5

12.7

 

3/16

4.8

6

15.2

 

1/4

6.35

7

17.8

 

5/16

7.9

8

20.3

 

3/8

9.5

9

22.9

 

7/16

11.1

10

25.4

 

1/2

12.7

11

27.9

 

9/16

14.3

12

30.5

 

5/8

15.9

 

 

 

11/16

17.5

 

 

 

3/4

19.05

 

 

 

13/16

20.6

 

 

 

7/8

22.2

 

 

 

15/16

23.8

 

 

 

1

25.4